Lothar Kleine-Horst:

Empiristic Theory of Visual Gestalt Perception (ETVG)
Hierarchy and Interactions of Visual Functions
Köln 2001

Zitat von W. Stegmüller


Preface and Introduction
1. On the aim and history of the ETVG - 2. Overview of the entire concept - 3. The first 75 years of sabotage in visual science (1925-2000) - a) Beginning and destruction of the research on actual genesis b) Cover-up of the sabotage of actual genesis by the German psychology establishment   4. Some similarities and differences between Berlin gestalt psychology and the ETVG - 5. The most important characteristics of the "Empiristic theory of visual gestalt perception" - 6. Those who will first receive this book.

Part 1: Theory of figure/outfield perception.
A. The functional sphere and its hierarchical structure
I. The old problem. 1. "Optical illusions"; 2. Sensory perception; 3. Gestalt perception
The new way to solve the problem. 1. The starting point; 2. What is a "figure"? 3. The basic model of visual gestalt perception
III. The functional hierarchy of contour factors.
1. The three-sphere-model of contour perception; 2. "Here is something bright" (Pml); 3. Brightness difference (Dm) and location difference (Dl); 4. The hierarchical relationships between Pml, Dm and Dl; 5. Lateral brightness gradient (Gml): 6. Lateral line (Ll); 7. Lateral closedness (Fl)
IV. Expanded model of gestalt perception

Part 2: Theory of figure/outfield perception.
B. Functional antagonism and phenomenal polarity
I. The bipolarity of figure quality. 1. Double perception; 2. The polarity of double perception; 3. Inhomogeneity and homogeneity; 4. Line and field; 5. Closedness and openness; figure and outfield; 6. The polarities of Pml, Dm and Dl;
II. Functional antagonism. 1.The functional structure of the figure perception system; 2. The receptive retinal areas of the gestalt factors; 3. Absolute scale and relative scale; 4. Passive and active antagonism;
III. The four phenomenal effects of a gestalt factor. 1. The "system" of phenomenal effects; 2. The two informative effects; 3. The formative effect; 4. The normative effect; 5. Relationships to other concepts of visual perception;
IV. Materiological and functionological stimulus concept

Part 3: Theory of figure/outfield perception
C. Functionological theory and neurobiological facts
I. Correspondence of Functions Hypothesis
. 1. Increase in theory deficit by neurobiological facts; 2. General functionology of both the neuron and the gestalt factor; 3. Special functionology and phenomenology of the gestalt factor Pml [Shape of the receptive Pml area - The unipolarity of Pml perception - The phenomenal location of Pml-brightness - The Pml-brightness at the Pml-location]; 4. The neurobiological correlates of the Pml functions;
II. Correspondence of Levels Hypothesis
III. Correspondence of Interactions Hypothesis.
1. "Filling-in" by a "command from above"; 2. Three directions of interactions; 3. Neuronal connections between visual areas;
IV. Higher-order receptive fields

Part 4: Theory of figure/outfield perception
D. Ontogenesis of the figure factors
I. The figure factors as memory contents. 1. The Empiristic Development Hypothesis; 2. Implicit and explicit memory concepts in the literature; 3. The hierarchical process of memorization; 4. The formation of the gestalt factor Pmldt; 5. The formation of the gestalt factors Dm and Dl; 6. The formation of the gestalt factor Gml; 7. The formation of the gestalt factors Ll and Fl;
II. Empirical confirmation of the theory of ontogenesis. 1. Predictions of gaze behavior development in infants; 2. The actual development of gaze behavior in infants; 3. The development of function sensitivity
III. On the structure and function of memory. 1. The memorization and actualization of functional relationships follow the same schema; 2. Phenomenological and functionological concepts of the memorized objects; 3. The particular visual functions of single cells as memory contents;

Part 5. Theory of form perception.
A. Ontogenesis and actualization of the quantity, orientation, and form factors

I. Introduction.
1. The five systems involved in form perception; 2. The "quantity factor" (Q) 3. The contribution of the oculomotor system to perception;
II. Forming the egocentric coordinate system. 1. The gestalt factors "verticality" (V) and "horizontality" (H); 2. The "anisotropy" of space; 3.The gestalt factor "tiltedness/orientedness" (T) [The "tiltedness" aspect - The "orientedness" aspect]; 4. Overview of the factor hierarchy;
III. Forming the geometric coordinate system. 1. The gestalt factor "elongatedness/ extendedness" (E); 2. The gestalt factor "straightness" (S); 3. The gestalt factor "measurement equality" (M); 4. The gestalt factor "rectangularity/ parallelism" (R); 5. Some formative effects of the coordinate factors; 6. Experiencing the same stimulus at different levels;
IV. First empirical confirmation of the hierarchical order of the quantity, orientation, and form factors. 1. The development of the visual ability of infants according to the factors at Levels 5 to 8; 2. The hierarchical order of the factors at Levels 6 to 10 as shown in the order of difficulty for preschool children while copying given forms;

Part 6: Theory of form perception
B. Actual genesis and actual lysis of complex ico-structures, and the effect of attention
I. The complexity of ico-structures.
1. The order-level complexity of figures, and the factor- based complexity; 2. The order-level complexity of figure/outfield systems; 3. Are there yet other aspects of complexity?
II. Actual-genetic pre-percepts of a figure. 1. Wohlfahrt's discovery; 2. The actualization schema; 3. Actual genesis of the outer contour; 4. Actual genesis of the inner contours;
III. Refinement of the interpretation. 1. Further agreement of the theory with fact; 2. Actual genesis of the infield; 3. The "formless disk"; 4. The "angleless pentagon";
IV. What "is" attention? 1. Science at a loss; 2. The everyday experience of attention;
V. The role of attention in Wohlfahrt's series of pre-percepts. 1. The relationship between the development of the outer contour and the development of the inner contours; 2. The disappearance of parts of the figure;
VI. The "actual lysis" of a figure through concentrative withdrawal of attention. 1. Overview of the experiment and its results; 2. The functional effects of attention; 3. Phenomenology and order-level functionology of the actual-lytic stages; 4. Form factor functionology of the actual-lytic stages;
VII. Negative afterimages and extrasensory images. 1. Comparative phenomenology of the images; 2. Functionology of the afterimages; 3. Negative afterimages of children;

Part 7: Theory of depth, time, and motion perception
I. The lowest stages of visual perception.
1. The complete system; 2. Physical matters and physical functions; 3. The gestalt factor Pmldt; 4. The four difference factors;
II. The six gradient factors. 1. The lateral brightness gradient (Gml); 2. The lateral depth gradient (Gdl); 3. The depth brightness gradient (Gmd); 4. The temporal brightness gradient (Gmt); 5. The lateral movement gradient (Glt) and the depth movement gradient (Gdt);
III. The finite solid in infinite space.
1. The combined spacial line/field factor (Ls); 2. The combined spacial closedness/openness factor (Fs); 3. Synopsis of the perception of a three-dimensional solid in a three-dimensional space, 4. The perception of a three-dimensional form;
IV. The finite change in infinite time. 1. Time line and time field (Lt), time closedness and time openness, time figure and time outfield (Ft); 2. The relationships between space and time factors;

Part 8: Empiristic Interaction Theory of Visual Figure Factors
I. Empiristic Association Hypothesis
II. Formalizing the gestalt laws
1. Syntax; 2. "Gestalt locations"; 3. The basis row of interaction factors; 4. The procedure of interpretation;
III. Examples of gestalt laws. 1. XA-laws; 2. Xdt-law; 3. Xdl-laws [The Moon illusion - The Delboef illusion - The Ebbinghaus illusion]; 4.XFl-laws; 5. Xdm-laws; 6. XLl-laws and XGml-laws;

Part 9: "Subjective" contours and fields accounted for by the ETVG
I. The edge type illusion
1. Introduction; 2. The primary conditions for the emergence of edge type NPCs [The origin of an MPC - The origin of an NPC - The origin of both a matching and a non-matching phenomenal field]; 3. Interpretation of peculiarities in the domain of NP contours and fields [About "determinants" of the NP contours and fields - The summation of functional activations - "Lengthening", "condensing", and "strengthening" effects of Ll - "Straight" and "curved" forms of an NPC]; 4. Further types of non-matching phenomenal contours and fields [Hermann grid patches - Percepts in actual-genetic and actual-lytic processes - Negative afterimages - "Clairvoyant images"];
II. The line-end type illusion. 1. The primary conditions for the emergence of line-end type NPCs; 2. The course of the NPC; 3. Explanation of some experimental findings [The detection threshold - Variables influencing the "abutting grating illusion"];4. Approach to accounting for other data;

 Part 10: Past, present, and future
I. General difficulties in reading this book

II. Comparing the ETVG with Berlin gestalt psychology in greater detail; 1. "Constancy hypothesis": none, one or two? 2. Sensory and gestalt stimuli; 3. Explicit and implicit memory; 4. Toward a synthesis of Ganzheit theory and "Element theory" using the ETVG; 5.Figural after-effects [The new facts - Köhler's failure to account for most after-effects - Accounting for the figural after-effects using the ETVG];
III. Comparing the ETVG with Leipzig gestalt psychology. 1. The "transphenomenal psychic being"; 2. Sander adopts the basic hypotheses of the ETVG actual-genetic theory;
IV. Further responses. 1. Comments to new facts and their interpretation; 2. Comments of non-gestaltists to the ETVG;
V. Comparing the ETVG with the Grossberg theory. 1. Similarities [Rough structural comparison - Statements about the Boundary Contour System (BCS) - Statements about the Feature Contour System (FCS) and its relationships to the BCS]; 2. Criticisms to the Grossberg theory [Invalid distinction between "visible" and "recognizable" percepts - Restricted domain of filling-in - The lack of a two-dimensional figure/outfield concept];
VI. The Four-Manner Four-Level Model of Reality. 1. Outline of the model; 2. Criticisms to the model; 3. New insights into reality [The solution to the mind/matter problem - Psychic and Mental Consciousness - Where the axioms of logic, arithmetic, and geometry come from - From Mental Consciousness (MC) to Mental Order (MO) - From Mental Order (MO) to Individual Cosmic Matter (ICM)];
VII. What could be the next steps in visual research? 1. The ETVG's limitations and the domains beyond them [Essential limitations - Present limitations]; 2. Further theoretical investigation; 3. Empirical examination of ETVG predictions [Accounting for known facts - Performing new experiments];

Part 11: Advanced studies on visual perception
I. Influences on the perception of size, length, and interval
(Xdl-laws). 1. The Baldwin illusion; 2. The Müller-Lyer illusion; 3. Additivity of illusion effects; 4. More influences on apparent line length; 5. The Oppel-Kundt illusion; 6. Dramatic phenomena; 7. The "fist experiment"; 8. Investigations on the Delboef illusion; 9. Where is the peak of non-monotonic curves? 10. Effects of contour blurring on size and length perception;
I. Influences on Critical Flicker Frequency and latency (Xdt-laws. 1. Critical Flicker Frequency (CFF) [Time figure and time outfield - The specific gestalt law "dt dt" - Unspecific Xdt-laws - The influence of figure complexity on CFF]; 2. Latency; 3. Two kinds of influence caused by figure complexity;
III. Similarity, discriminability, and their hierarchical dependences. 1. Theory of similarity and discriminability; 2. Similarity judgments, with examples from Goldmeier (1937); 3. Number and orientation similarity [Number similarity ranks - Orientation Similarity Measure (OSM) - Combined number and orientation similarity rank order, using an experiment from Beck (1966)] 4. Discrimination time rank orders [An example from Olson and Attenave (1970) - Examples from Pomerantz, Sager, and Stoever (1977)]; 5. Texture discrimination [Examples from Julesz, Gilbert, Shepp, and Frisch (1973) - Examples from Caelli, Julesz, and Gilbert (1978)];
6. Search asymmetries, with examples from Treisman and Gormican (1988);


Can this theory be one of the seldom emerging grand paradigm candidates?
1. The aim of the epilogue; 2. Normal science, its paradigms and anomalies; 3. Resistance to paradigm change; 4. The characteristics of a new paradigm; 5. How will a new paradigm be adopted by scientists? 6. Who are the inventors of paradigms?